Concrete Technology Manual

CTM Manual (PDF) Open with Google Chrome

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Chapter 1 Structure Concrete Characteristics
  • Structure Concrete Characteristics
  • Workability and Consistency
    • Consolidation
    • Bleed Water
  • The Hardening Process
    • Initial Set
    • False Set
    • Final Set
    • Heat of Hydration 
  • Strength Development
    • Compressive Strength
  • Effect of Water-Cement Ratio on Concrete Strength
    • Curing
    • Strength of Concrete in Existing Structures
  • Volume Changes and Deformations
    • Creep
    • Dry Shrinkage
    • Shrinkage and Swelling Due to Moisture Change
    • Thermal Expansion and Contraction
  • Durability
    • Carbonation
    • Sulfates
    • Chlorides
    • Resistance to Freezing and Thawing
    • Alkali Aggregate Reaction
    • Delayed Ettringite Formation
    • Abrasion
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Concrete Construction Materials
  • Concrete Construction Materials
  • Cementitious Materials
    • Portland Cement
    • Portland Cement Types
    • Blended Portland Cements
    • Portland Cement Manufacturing Process
    • Particle Size and Appearance
    • Specific Gravity
    • Hot Cement
    • Supplementary Cementitious Materials
    • Fly Ash
    • Metakaolin
    • Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
    • Silica Fume
    • Rice Hull Ash
    • Specialty Cementitious Materials
    • Type I, Type II or Type III (White) Portland Cement
    • Magnesium Phosphate Cements 
    • Calcium Aluminate Cements
    • Aggregate
    • Contamination
    • Moisture
    • Shape and Texture
    • Gradation
    • Alkali-Silica Reactivity
    • Water
    • Concrete Admixtures
    • Type AE, Air-Entraining Admixtures
    • Air-Entrainment Advantages
    • Air-Entrainment Disadvantages
    • The Air-Entrainment Process
    • Dosage
    • Water Content
    • Aggregate
    • Other Admixtures
    • Mixing
    • Concrete Temperature
    • Vibration
    • Type A – Water Reducing Admixtures
    • Type B – Retarding and Type D – Water Reducing and Retarding Admixtures
    • Type C – Accelerating and Type E – Water Reducing and Accelerating Admixtures
    • Type F – High Range Water Reducers and Type G – High-Range Water Reducer and Set Retarder
    • Type S – Specific Performance Admixtures
  • Chapter 3 Review of Concrete Mix Designs
  • Introduction
  • Design of Concrete Mixes
  • Definitions
  • Supplementary Cementitious Materials
  • Aggregate
  • Grading Limits
  • Maximum Density and Balanced Grading
    • General Information
  • Workability and Gradation
  • Particle Shape and Surface Texture
  • Water
    • Admixtures
  • Mix Design Procedure (Absolute Volume Method)
  • Review of Concrete Mix Designs
    • Initial Submittal Review
  • Checking Submitted Cementitious Material Requirements and Proportioning
  • Checking Submitted Aggregate Gradations
  • Checking Amount of Water and Penetration 
  • Checking Submitted Chemical or Air-Entraining Admixtures
  • Minor Concrete Binary Mix
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Proportioning, Mixing and Transporting
  • Introduction
  • Proportioning
    • Aggregate Storage and Handling
    • Cementitious Material Storage and Handling
    • Weighing and Measuring Equipment
    • Manual and Automatic Batching
    • Moisture Meters
    • Chemical Admixtures
    • Controlling Batch Temperature
    • Cooling Concrete
    • Heating Concrete
  • Mixing and Transportation
    • Ready-Mixed Concrete
    • Central-Mixed Concrete
    • Transit-Mixed Concrete
    • Inspection of Mixing Equipment
    • Transporting Mixed Concrete
    • Time or Amount of Mixing
    • On-Site Mixing
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Concrete Construction
  • Concrete Construction
  • Quality Assurance: Pre-Construction Review
    • Specifications
    • Standard Plans
    • Other Reference Documents
    • Technical Resources
    • Specific Pre-Construction Practices
    • Bridge Construction Surveying
  • Concrete Forms
    • Specifications
    • Forming System
    • Form Fasteners
    • Form Liners
    • Miscellaneous Form Types
    • Steel Forms
    • Fiber Form Tubes
    • Metal Decking
    • Pre-Fabricated Forms
    • Form Workmanship.
    • Structural Adequacy of Formwork
    • Formwork Design
    • Formwork Design Review
    • Deflection
    • Lateral Loading
    • Unit Weight of Concrete
    • Rate of Placement 
    • Other Factors
    • Admixtures
    • Lateral Pressure Values (ACI 347-04)
    • Form Release Agent
    • Formwork Removal
  • Concrete Placement
    • Prior to Placing Concrete
    • Concrete Delivery
    • Quality Assurance
    • Forms
    • Mix Consistency and Uniformity
    • Concrete Tickets
    • Concrete Placement Time
    • Transit Mixer Drum Revolution
    • Concrete Temperature
    • Certificates of Compliance
    • Weight Limits
    • Adding Water to Concrete
    • Delivery Rate
    • Conveyance of Concrete
    • Chutes
    • Concrete Buckets
    • Drop Chutes
    • Belt Conveyors
    • Concrete Pumps
    • Slick Line
    • Placing Concrete
    • Depositing Concrete
    • Segregation
    • Prevention of Concrete Defects
    • Protecting Concrete
  • Consolidating Concrete
    • Vibrating Concrete
    • Internal Vibrators
    • External Vibrators
    • Consequences of Improper Vibration
    • Revibration
  • Finishing Plastic Concrete
    • Bleed Water
    • Strike Off
    • Initial Finishing
    • Machine Finishing: Bridge Deck
    • Other Concrete Finishing Equipment
    • Finishing Air-Entrained Concrete
  • Curing Concrete
    • Plastic Shrinkage Cracking
    • Specified Concrete Curing Methods
    • Water Method
    • Plastic Sheets
    • Burlene®
    • Forms-In-Place Method
    • Curing Compound Method
    • Fogging
    • Application
    • Quality Assurance
    • Safety
    • Waterproof Membrane Method
    • Curing Structures
    • Curing Minor Structures
  • Surface Finishes
    • Specified Concrete Finishes
    • Ordinary Surface Finish
    • Patching Snap-Tie Holes
    • Repair of Rock Pockets
    • Class 1 Surface Finish
    • Whip Blasting
    • Engineer’s Roles and Responsibilities
    • Unacceptable Class 1 Finishes
    • Class 2 Surface Finish
    • Safety and Environment
    • Working Over Water and Environmentally Sensitive Areas
    • Working Over Traffic
  • Special Concrete Construction Practices
    • Specification Requirements
    • Hot Weather Construction
    • Control of Concrete Temperature
    • Mixing and Delivery
    • Placing and Finishing
    • Curing
    • Use Of Admixtures
    • Cold Weather Construction
    • Mixing And Delivery
    • Placing and Finishing
    • Curing
    • Measuring Concrete Temperatures
    • Placing Concrete Under Water
    • Seal Course Concrete
    • Concrete Placement
    • Water and Slurry Displacement Method
  • Bridge Construction Practices
    • Foundations
    • Concrete Piles
    • Footings
    • Columns and Walls
    • Bent Caps
    • Superstructure
    • Stem and Soffit-Box Girder
    • Stem/Deck Construction Joint
    • Bridge Decks
    • Barrier Rails
    • Emergency Construction Joints
    • Weight Limits
  • Chapter 6 Structure Concrete Repair and Rehabilitation
  • Structure Concrete Repair and Rehabilitation
  • Concrete Repair Process
    • Assess the Defect and Determine the Cause
    • Surface Imperfections
    • Cracking
    • Scaling
    • Spalling
    • Delamination
    • Surface Wear
    • Determine Limits of Defective Concrete
    • Determine If Repairs are Necessary
    • Choose the Repair Strategy
    • Cementitious Materials
    • Polymeric Materials
    • Thermoplastic/Thermoset
    • High-Molecular-Weight
    • Free Radical Polymerization
    • Key Variables 
    • Methacrylate
    • Polyester Concrete
    • Urethane
    • Epoxy
    • Epoxy Mortar
    • Remove Defective Concrete
    • Place Repair Materials
    • Cure The Repair
  • Repairing Minor Construction Defects
    • Dry-Packing
    • Conventional Concrete Patching
    • Shotcrete
    • Commercial Patching Materials
    • Epoxy Mortar Patches
    • Repair Testing
  • Large Defect Repair - Concrete Replacement
    • Preparation
    • Placing
  • Repairing Defects In New Bridge Decks
    • Filling Shallow Voids
    • Filling Deep Voids
    • Bonding Agents
    • Small Area Repair (< Two Inches Deep)
    • Large Area Repair (> Two Inches Deep)
    • Filling Cracks by Epoxy Injection
  • Bridge Deck Rehabilitation
    • Surface Preparation
    • Low-Slump Portland Concrete Overlays
    • Latex-Modified Concrete Overlays
    • Conventional Portland Cement Concrete Overlays
    • Methacrylate Overlays
    • Polyester Concrete Overlays
  • Chapter 7 Caltrans Advancements/High Performance Concrete
  • Introduction
  • High Performance Concrete
    • High Early Strength
    • High Strength Concrete
    • Self-Consolidating Concrete
    • Mass Concrete
    • The Basics of Mass Concrete
    • Thermal Control Measures
    • Identifying Mass Concrete
    • Passive Control by Prescriptive Specifications, Caltrans Practice Prior to the 21st Century
    • Performance Based Requirements
    • The Use of Active Thermal Control by Caltrans
    • Noyo River Bridge
    • San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge East Spans
    • Benicia-Martinez Bridge Substructure and Foundation
    • Cast-in-Place Segmental Bridge Construction
    • Lightweight Concrete Segments and Mass Concrete in Elements with Dimensions as Small as 10 inches
    • Devil’s Slide / Confusion Hill: A Laconic Approach to Mass Concrete Specifications
    • Acceptance of Active Controls And Return to Passive Control
    • Back to Prescriptive Passive Control Specifications & Mass Concrete for Concrete Piles
    • Mass Concrete Conclusions
    • Lightweight Concrete
    • Shrinkage Compensating Concrete
    • Durability
    • Fiber Reinforced Concrete
    • Reactive Powder Concrete
  • Chapter 8 Material Sampling and Testing
  • Introduction
  • Test Types
    • Initial Samples And Tests
    • Acceptance Tests
    • Independent Assurance Tests
    • FHWA Samples And Tests
    • Test Frequency
  • Sample Identification
  • Acceptance Testing and Sampling
    • Certification of Project Personnel
  • Sampling and Testing Aggregate
    • Test Methods for Aggregates
    • Sieve Analysis (California Test 202)
    • Percentage of Crushed Particles (California Test 205)
    • Resistance to Abrasion Loss (California Test 211)
  • Soundness and Durability (California Tests 214 and 229)
  • Sand Equivalent (California Test 217)
  • Surface Moisture (California Test 223)
  • Specific Gravity of Coarse Aggregate (California Test 224)
  • Specific Gravity of Fine Aggregate (California Test 225)
  • Moisture Content by Oven Drying (California Test 226)
  • Cleanness of Coarse Aggregate (California Test 227)
  • Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates
    • Short Method, ASTM C 1260
    • Long Method, ASTM C 1293
  • Material Sampling
    • Sampling Cementitious Materials
  • Sampling Water
  • Sampling Admixtures
  • Sampling for Polyester Concrete
  • Chapter 9 Job Control Sampling and Testing
  • Introduction
  • Sampling Procedure
  • Field Control Tests
  • Ball Penetration Test (California Test 533)
    • Lightweight Concrete
    • Calibration
  • Test Procedure
  • Density Of Fresh Concrete (California Test 518)
  • Air Content by Pressure Method (California Test 504)
  • Air Content by Volumetric Method (California Test 543)
  • Proportion of Coarse Aggregate (California Test 529)
  • Tests for Compressive Strength (California Test 521)
    • Number of Test Cylinders
    • Frequency of Sampling
  • Making and Handling Test Specimens (California Test 540)
    • Identification of Test Cylinders
    • Shipping Test Cylinders
    • Reporting Test Results
    • Safety
    • Concrete Pour Records
    • Trial Batches
    • Concrete Compressive Strength by Maturity Method
    • Sampling and Testing of Self-Consolidating Concrete
    • Slump-Flow Test (ASTM C1611)
    • Static Segregation Test (ASTM C1610)
    • Passing Ability Test (J-Ring, ASTM C1621)
  • References