Short Summaries of Oral Histories

Baxter, Frank
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

Frank Baxter served 39 years with the Division of Highways before retiring in 1969. He first worked in the District 6, as Assistant to the Maintenance Engineer and later was appointed the first Materials Engineer in the District 6 Laboratory. He also served during the course of his career as District 9 Director, State Maintenance Engineer, and Assistant State Highway Engineer of Planning.

Topics covered include work on Maricopa Highway, the Grapevine, origin of District Materials Engineer positions, expansion of duties of Maintenance Department due to start of Interstate System building, importance of Maintenance experience in understanding how to plan and design highways, importance of Collier-Burns Act of 1947.

Beaton, John
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

John Beaton began his service with the Division of Highways in 1929 as an Engineering Aid. He later worked for the Bridge Department until after World War II when he transferred to the State Personnel Board. He returned to the Division of Highways Design Department. He was named State Equipment Engineer in 1963 and then in 1964 was appointed Chief of the Materials and Research Department.

Topics covered include Kings River Canyon job and working with Camp 39 convict labor, participated in survey of county built bridges when a large number of county roads taken over by State in 1933. Worked with J. W. Vickrey to devise reorganization/expansion plan for Division of Highways to meet requirements of Collier Burns Act of 1947. Recruited junior civil engineers from out of state in 1950s. Worked at Materials and Research Lab under Francis Hveem, laboratory fire of 1956. Welded construction of bridges, use of T1 Steel for Carquinez Bridge, utilization of prestressed concrete on bridge building, initiation of dynamic testing of guardrails/crash tests using radio-controlled automobiles and Governor Hiram Johnson's legacy of noninterference by politicians in the operations of State Government.

Bordsen, Gordon
Interviewed by Mary Hanel, 1991.

Gordon started on March 1, 1957, and retired January 6, 1989. He spent his entire time in District 03. During Gordon's tenure he worked in the District Right of Way Department and then retired as the Deputy District Director in charge of Administration. Gordon served as Chairman of the District 3 History Committee.

Butler, Clyde
Interviewed September 7, 1989, by Gordon Bordsen, District 3 History Committee.

Clyde Butler worked for the California Division of Highways from 1927-1933 as a truck driver and maintenance laborer. He later went on to work for and retired from, the El Dorado County Roads Department. In 1989, 92-year-old Mr. Butler arranged for the return to the State of two obelisks from the Riverton Bridge, the first major project built by the State in 1900 to improve the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road.

Topics covered include horse and buggy days in Pollock Pines area, Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, Lincoln Highway, US 50, Pioneer Trail, tolls on Pioneer Trail, state department of Engineering, "Big Ditch project, southern pacific railroad, Smiths Flat maintenance station, snow removal in early 1930s.

Cassano, Robert
Interview conducted by Don Alden, on April 16, 1998.

Robert C. Cassano, career at Caltrans spanned 36 years, from 1951-1987, and culminated as head of the Division of Structures of the California Department of Transportation from 1984 to 1987. The interview includes, impressions of the major engineering and administrative issues that faced the Department during his long career, and the focus primarily on bridge and structures related matters and the people involved in finding solutions.

Topics covered include bridge department reorganization and name change, bridge failures, bridge design, changes after San Fernando earthquake, bridge retrofit program, layoffs, and Saudi Arabia experience.

Cornelius, M. E.
Personal Memoirs, August 1982.

M. E. (Gene) Cornelius joined the Division of Highways in District 11, San Diego as a Junior Civil Engineer in 1948. In June 1955, he moved up to Sacramento to become Assistant to the Division Construction Engineer. He produced filmstrips for the training of personnel for construction inspection. He became Assistant Project Engineer for the Westside Freeway. In 1964, he transferred to the Programs and Budget Department where he developed a plan for cash and resources forecasting and management. In his final years with Caltrans he worked in the Maintenance and Equipment Departments. He retired December 1980.

Topics covered include problems for widening a conventional State Highway that runs through a business area, curbing/center island design problems, and Westside Freeway development.

Devore, June
Interviewed July 28, 1986 by Gordon Bordsen, District 3 History Committee.

June DeVore was the first full-time Communications Radio Dispatcher in District 3 Marysville, where she worked for 26 years until her retirement in 1977. She saw the communications field in the State grow from the large old tube sets to the later transistor rigs of today.

Topics covered include electric streetcars in Yuba City, winter of 1951-1952 when "City of San Francisco" Train trapped in snow off US 40, Yuba City flood in 1955, improving Highway 89 for 1960 Olympics in Squaw Valley.

Durkee, Frank
Interviewed March 7, 1979 by Francis Hveem.

Frank Durkee retired in 1957 after 31 years of service to the State. From 1951-1957 he was the Director of the California Department of Public Works. He had started his career with the California Highway Commission as editor of California Highways & Public Works magazine in 1924. He also had worked as a Right of Way agent and an attorney in the Legal Department.

Topics covered include determining pavement widths and affect on Right of Way policy, Freeway policy in 1950s, Breed Act divides highway money on a North-South County line, creation of the Department of Public Works, centralized organization of highway department creating departments in HQ, Rincon Sea Wall failure, and building parallel bridge over Carquinez Straits.

Fite, Preston
Interviewed September 1978 by Francis Hveem.

Preston Fite retired on March 31, 1950, after 32 years of State service. At the time of his retirement, he was Assistant to the State Maintenance Engineer. His first job with the State was as a helper in the State Testing Laboratory then located at the State Fairgrounds.

Topics covered include survey party chairman in 1913, first super-elevation of curbs used in Sacramento Canyon above Redding, writing of an early maintenance manual and origin of the Maintenance Superintendent System.

Frink, Laursten
Interviewed October 24, 1985 by Gordon Bordsen, District 3 History Committee.

Laursten Frink, 87 years old at the time of the interview, worked for the Division of Highways (mostly District 3) Maintenance unit from 1925 until his retirement as an Equipment Operator in 1958. Most of his years were spent maintaining the Auburn to Truckee segment of old US 40. Mr. Frink was the uncle of Jack Snider, the hero of the rescue of "The City of San Francisco" train. John Snider assisted with the interview.

Topics covered include maintenance work during the late 1920s to 1930s, early Maintenance equipment, gravel and oiled roads, Culvert Construction in 1930s, early road construction graders and water wagons, dirt roads and Yuba Gap Station.

Geddes, Blair
Interviewed August 15, 1985 by Gordon Bordsen, District 3 History Committee.

Blair Geddes worked for the California Division of Highways from 1928 until his retirement in 1972. He Worked in Districts 3, 4, 8, 9, and 10. From 1950 until his retirement he served as the District Traffic Engineer for District 3. He received honors and commendations for his significant and innovative contributions to traffic safety in California. Mr. Geddes died on January 26, 1987.

Topics covered include Yuba City Flood of 1955, Traffic Engineering accomplishments, Olympics 1960, Broadway low level tunnel, growth of State Highway system, traffic signals on state highways through cities and first use of Signs with black letters on white background.

Gianturco, Adriana
Oral History Interview with Adriana Gianturco, California State Archives Oral History Program. Interviewed March 2-May 5, 1994, by George F. Petershagen CSUS

Adriana Gianturco served as Director, California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) from March 15, 1976 through January 3, 1983.

Topics covered include transition from Division of Highways to Department of Transportation, California Transportation Commission, controversies/relationships with press, Caltrans organization, reorganizations, HQ/District relationships, funding, aeronautics, alternative transportation, Amtrak, Sacramento Light Rail, High Speed Rail, Caltrain.

Goetz, Betty (Highway Recollections of Grayce Kingsbury, Betty Goetz, and Martha Kubo)
Interviewed in March 2000 by Don Alden

Betty Goetz began her career as a stenographer in the District 3 Right of Way Division. In 1958, she returned to Sacramento to begin her long career in the Bridge Department. During her career, she served as stenographer and, from 1967 to 1985 Executive the Bridge Department. After the Bridge Department was incorporated into the new Department of Structures, she continued to work for several Division Chiefs in Planning until her retirement in 1994.

Topics covered include technology transitions, Bridge Department growth and change, Division Chiefs’ management styles, changing role of Executive Secretary, San Fernando and Loma Prieta earthquakes and Bridge Department response.

Green, William R.
Personal Memoirs, June 1989.

William R. (Bill) Green started his career with the California Division of Highways in 1941 and retired as Director of District 3 Caltrans in 1987. During the course of his career he worked as an engineer in District 3, in Headquarters Programs and Budgets, and in Headquarters Construction. He served as Chief, Office of Planning and Design, and Chief, Office of Office Engineer before beginning his final position as Director of District 3. His father, Philip R. (Rene) Green worked for the Division of Highways, chiefly in Districts 1 and 3, from 1912-1952. Mr. Green’s memoirs discuss also his father’s career.

Topics covered include early history of the California Highway Commission and the State Highway System, U.S. 40 four-laning, U.S. 99E Construction through Marysville and Yuba City, freeway development in California, U.S. 40 four-laning, Auburn to Applegate, 1955 Yuba City Flood, 1960 Olympics, layoffs and financial problems for highway program, Career Executive Appointment classification created, creation of Chief Engineer classification and Adriana Gianturco’s directorship.

Gregory, Glydus
Personal Reminiscences, 1973.

Glydus Gregory came to work for the California Division of Highways as a radio communications specialist on November 25, 1946. He served the Department as a radio communications engineer until his retirement in 1974. The year before he retired, he recorded reminiscences of his career in radio communications. Topics covered include early day (1940s) radio system problems.

Grout, Bob
Interviewed April 8, 1982 by John Reagan.

During a 33-year engineering career, Bob Grout became specialist in highway equipment repair and management. He advanced from Assistant Highway Engineer, road construction maintenance to Supervising Equipment Engineer and finally to Chief, Equipment Resources Branch. He retired from Caltrans 1980.

Topics covered include first sign crews, 1947, when Division of Highways takes over signing State Highways from AAA, strike/union problems a major factor in eliminating maintenance forces from doing construction, and first diesel truck bought.

Hellesoe, George
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

George F. Hellesoe retired in 1956 after nearly 31 years of State service. From 1949 until his retirement, he served as Division of Highways Maintenance Engineer. Under Hellesoe the Statewide two-way FM radio setup between maintenance forces in the field and the Sacramento and District Headquarters was developed to facilitate maintenance.

Topics covered include convict camp labor.

Helwer, Sam
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

Sam Helwer retired as Director of District 3 in 1975 after serving 39 years with the State. He was Director of District 1 in eureka during the time of the devastating 1964 Christmas Floods. The massive restoration done under his leadership was nominated as the outstanding civil engineering achievement of 1965 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. He served on a four-man task force, which wrote the first highway design manual for the State.

Topics covered include working with convicts at Convict Camps, Institute of Traffic Engineering set up at University of California, traffic counting methods in the 1950s, beginning of environmental and ecology movement against highways.

Hess, Rudolf
Interviewed in January 1982 by Francis Hveem.

Rudolf Hess worked for the Division of Highways for almost 40 years. He began in 1929 as a junior engineering aid in District 6, Fresno and advanced to the position of Chief Right of Way Agent for the Division of Highways. Under his leadership, the Right of Way program achieved national recognition. He wrote the first Right of Way manual in the nation. Policies he developed became standards for the highway programs of other states.

Higgins, Roy
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

E. Roy Higgins served the State for 40 years, first with the Department of Finance and then from 1928-1962 with the Department of Public Works which encompassed the Division of Highways. He was, first, chief accountant and then controller for the Department of Public Works

Topics covered include preparation of bond issues and handling of money for San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and other major projects, accounting offices in the Highway Districts.

Hogan, Wendell
Interviewed August 26, 1987, by Mary Hanel and Dan Cherry, District 2.

Wendell Hogan spent 41 years with District 2 of the California Division of Highway working in the maintenance unit. He began his career during the Great Depression as an unemployment relief laborer working on the construction of the Feather River Highway in 1931. He retired in 1972 as Assistant Highway Superintendent at the Burney Maintenance Station.

Topics covered include: working with the "free" men labor force to build the Feather River Highway, unemployment relief hiring during the Great Depression, floods of 1937 and 1955, and convict labor.

Jahlstrom, I. O.
Interviewed on December 19, 1981, by Donald Alden.

I. O. "Jolly" Jahlstrom spent 37 years of his career, from 1927-1965, as a bridge engineer for the Division of Highways. He retired as Principal Bridge Engineer–Operations in 1965. He was resident engineer on several major bridge construction projects including the Bixby Creek Arch and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge substructure and superstructure contracts for the twin suspension spans of the West Bay Crossing.

Topics covered include U.S. Bureau of Public Roads on Bridges in Yosemite Valley over Merced River, building of Bixby Creek Arch, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge work, and opening of Los Angeles Bridge Department office.

Jorgensen, J. Frank
Interviewed February 17, 1978, by Francis Hveem.

J. Frank Jorgensen’s career with the Division of Highways spanned 41 years. He began work in District 4 in 1931. He later served as resident engineer on the Cabrillo Freeway Project in District 11. In 1962, he came to Sacramento to serve as the Division’s Construction Engineer. He retired in 1972.

Kingsbury, Grayce (Highway Recollections of Grayce Kingsbury, Betty Goetz, and Martha Kubo)
Interviewed in March 2000, by Don Alden

Grayce Kingsbury began working for the Department as a stenographer in 1922, and within a few days was promoted to work for Bridge Engineer H. E. Warrington. She watched the Bridge Department grow and change until her retirement in 1966.

Topics covered include technology transitions, Bridge Department growth and change, Division Chiefs’ management styles, and changing role of Executive Secretary.

Kubo, Martha (Highway Recollections of Grayce Kingsbury, Betty Goetz, and Martha Kubo)
Interviewed in March 2000, by Don Alden

Martha Kubo started working for the Department in the mail room and later became a stenographer. She worked as secretary to Bob Cassano (then Principle Bridge Engineer in charge of Planning) from 1973-85. She became Executive Secretary for Bridge Department, under Bob Cassano from 1985-87 and under Jim Roberts from 1987-89. She was promoted to Assistant Caltrans Administrator, where she worked until her retirement.

Topics covered include technology transitions, Bridge Department growth and change, Division Chiefs’ management styles, changing role of Executive Secretary, San Fernando and Loma Prieta earthquakes and Bridge Department response.

Laforge, Harold
Interviewed May 1977 by Francis Hveem.

Harold LaForge served the Division of Highways for 42 years, from 1919 until his retirement in 1962. He served eleven years in District 6, Fresno as a resident engineer (1926-1937) and five years as District Maintenance Engineer for District 2, Redding (1937-1942). He served his final 17 years (1945-1962) as engineer in charge of the Federal Aid Secondary Road Program.

Topics covered include early construction work in District 6, Federal-Aid-Secondary Program, paving machines for black top paving, and tree-dodging (Save the Trees).

Lague, Jim
Interviewed by Gordon Bordsen, District 3 History Committee.

Jim Lague began his career with the District 3 Division of Highways on December 10, 1946. He worked in Design and the Cities and Counties Cooperative Unit in District 3 but the longest part of his career was devoted to Survey work. He headed the District's Photogrammetry Section from 1956 until his retirement in 1971.

Langsner, George
Interviewed June 9, 1978 by Francis Hveem.

George Langsner worked for the Division of Highways for 40 years, from 1931 until his retirement in 1971. He spent his career working in District 7. He ran the Design section of District 7 from 1949-1955, moved to Sacramento November 1957 as Design Engineer, and served as Deputy State Highway Engineer from 1963-1971.Topics covered include work on Coast Highway, Ramona Blvd., and design work for Arroyo Seco Parkway.

Lovering, W. R.
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

W. R. Lovering, a specialist in asphalt pavement design, worked for the Division of Highways from 1929-1956, much of that time as a Materials Engineer at the Laboratory and then in District 1. He then left State service to work for the Asphalt Institute as District Engineer for Northern California and Nevada. He retired from the Asphalt Institute in 1975.

Topics covered include development of the stabilometer and development of formula for chip seal quantities.

Maddocks, Fred
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

Fred Maddocks was the first "Testing Engineer" of the first California Highway Commission "Laboratory" at the old State Fair Grounds. He began work at the Lab in 1912 when a Deval Rattler and a Stark Centrifuge were the only pieces of testing equipment used. By 1922, the lab staff had grown from two to six employees and a move was made to a brick building at 3435 Serra Way. Maddocks retired in 1948.

Mcmahon, J. E.
Interviewed June 6, 1982 by Donald Alden.

James McMahon served as the head of the Division of Highways Bridge Department from 1960 until his retirement early in 1973. Prior to that he was Principal Bridge Engineer in charge of the Los Angeles office. Under McMahon's leadership, the Bridge Department won a number of awards in competitions sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, the American Institute of Steel Construction, and the Prestressed Concrete Institute.

Miles, Herbert
Interviewed October 30, 1987, by Mary Hanel.

Herb Miles worked for the California Division of Highways from 1930 until his retirement on March 6, 1973. He began his highway career with a summer job in District 4 while attending the University of California. He worked as an inspector as construction was completed on the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in 1936. In the early 1950s he was Assistant District Engineer in charge of Administration for District 4. In 1956 he was promoted to District Engineer in charge of District 2, the position from which he retired. He headed District 2 during the height of the Interstate Highway System building era.

Topics covered include beginning of freeway building era in District 4, interstate 5 construction, roadside rest area system, Vista point program, and highway numbering systems.

Mulcahy, Gilbert
Interview conducted by Gordon Bordsen, January 12, 1991.

Gilbert Mulcahy who retired in 1972 as the Chief Right of Way Agent in the Marysville Right of Way Office of District 03. Gil’s entire career was in District 3 and spanned over 36 years. While Gil was here he saw the Right of Way Department expand from just a few Agents to a 100+-person organization. This was mainly due to the start of the Interstate program in the early 1950’s.

Nash, Pete
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

A.M. "Pete" Nash had a career with the Division of Highways that spanned from 1919 until his retirement in 1962. He worked in four of the eleven Districts and served as District Director for Districts 1, 3, and 5. He was active in the Western Association of State Highway Officials (WASHO) and received national recognition in the field of highway design and construction.

Topics covered include the creation of District 10.

Interviewed April 8, 1982 by Bob Grout.

John Reagan, in his career with the Division of Highways, advanced from a starting position in 1956 as Equipment Operator at Happy Camp to Senior Equipment Engineer, Equipment Coordinator in 1975.

Topics covered include snow removal, convict labor camp 1964 Christmas floods, and equipment catalog.

Roberts, James E.
Interviewed by Don Alden on April 26, 1999

James Roberts began his fifty-year career with the Department in 1951 as a Student Assistant. Over the fifty years, the positions he held include Associate and Senior Bridge Designer, Deputy Chief of the Equipment Division, Project Director of the Sacramento Light Rail Project, Chief of the Office of Structures Design, Director of the Engineering Service Center, and finally Chief Deputy Director of Caltrans. He retired in October 2001. His retirement party was held on October 17, 2001, twelve years to the day of the Loma Prieta Earthquake.

Topics covered include bridge deflection research, Motorized Equipment Training Academy (META), Sacramento Light Rail Project, Professional Engineers in California Government (PECG), load and resistance factor bridge design, and seismic upgrading of California bridges.

Rust, Clyde
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

Clyde Rust served the Division of Highways for nearly 46 years. He started in 1913 as an office boy in Headquarters and then entered the Army in 1917. He returned to the Division of Highways in 1919 as an assistant resident engineer with District 3 Construction Department. From 1930 until his retirement in 1959, he worked as highway superintendent in the Sacramento area.

Topics covered include establishment of the Maintenance Superintendent system in 1930, building of the Equipment shop in 1938, and use of World War I salvage army trucks as the Department’s first equipment.

Schade, Florence
Interviewed March 29, 1988, by Gordon Bordsen, District 3 History Committee.

Florence Sc hade worked for the District 3 California Division of Highways Accounting Office for 34 years. She began work in 1934 and retired in 1968. Mrs. Sc hade died September 1989.

Topics covered include District 3 in mid-1930s, bookkeeping practices, salary rates, streetcar days in Marysville and Yuba City and civil service testing.

Schaefer, William E.
Interviewed July 1990, by Mary Hanel.

Bill Schaefer worked for the Department for nearly 38 years. His first assignment was in 1951 in District 4 where he was involved with freeway route planning. Some of his other positions include Resident Engineer, District 8; Assistant Traffic Engineer under Karl Moskowitz; Design Engineer in District 7 (1961 to 1971); Deputy Chief Engineer; and Deputy Director of Maintenance and Operation (1980 to 1982). From 1983 until his retirement in August 1990, he served as Deputy Director of Project Development and Chief Engineer of Caltrans.

Topics covered include route planning work on I-580 and I-680, median barrier policy and development, truck escape ramps, ramp metering, Adriana Gianturco, McKinsey report and downscoping, layoffs, splitting of Chief Engineer position, pavement management system, Caltrans 2000 Project and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Snider, Jack
Interviewed August 15, 1985, by Gordon Bordsen, District 3 History Committee.

Jack Snider began his 36-year District 3 Division of Highways/Caltrans career as a Laborer in 1941. He rose through the maintenance ranks to Senior Superintendent before his retirement in 1977. Mr. Snider's career spanned the Construction of Interstate 80 over Donner Summit. He was also one of the heroes in the rescue of "The City of San Francisco" train which was stranded near Yuba Gap during the severe winter snowstorms of January 1952. Mr. Snider died April 6, 1988.

Steele, Don J.
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

Don J. Steele had a long career with the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads beginning in 1924. As BPR Division Engineer for the State of California, he worked closely with the Division of Highways administration in determining locations of Federal Aid routes, particularly along the Interstate System.

Topics covered include political influence and road building and Collier-Burns Act of 1947.

Walters, Clarence
Interviewed October 24, 1985, by Gordon Bordsen, District 3 History Committee.

Clarence Walters worked for the District 3 Division of Highways Maintenance unit from 1930 until his retirement, as a Leadworker, in 1965. Much of Mr. Walter’s career was spent maintaining, oiling, and keeping snow cleared from old US 40 between Auburn and Truckee. Mr. Walters was the stepfather of Jack Snider, the hero of the rescue of "The City of San Francisco" train. Jack Snider assisted with the interview. Mr. Walters passed away December 29, 1989.Topics covered include early road grading equipment, snow plowing equipment and operations in the 1930s and Kingvale build.

Topics covered include early road grading equipment, snow plowing equipment and operations in the 1930s, and the building of the Kingvale Maintenance Academy.

Waterman, Herbert A.
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

Herbert A. Waterman worked for the Division of Highways for 38 years, first from 1914-1917 and then on a permanent basis from 1921-1957. He served as Office Engineer for District 3 and then became one of the original members of the headquarters Construction Department. He was in charge of reviewing and recommending acceptance of all construction contracts awarded by the Division of Highways for its vast road building program throughout the State.

Topics covered include: standard set for 4-inch thick pavements, gravel roads construction program, first construction manuals, and convict labor camp problems.

Wieman, Larry (David L.)
Interviewed March 21, 1990, by Mary Hanel.

Larry Wieman began his career with the California Division of Highways in 1946, working for District 8. After going back to school at UCLA to get his Civil Engineering degree, he returned to District 8 eventually becoming District Design Engineer where he designed Interstate 10, between south of San Bernardino and east of Redlands. In 1965 he moved to HQ on a promotion to administer the Division of Highways Research Programs, in 1967 he was appointed as a Division liaison with the State Legislature. He served in this position until he was promoted to Chief, Urban Planning in 1969. He was involved with the 1972-1973 transition process from the Division of Highways to creation of the Department of Transportation (CALTRANS). He also worked on the ill-fated State Transportation Plan. In 1976 he was reassigned to serve as Director of Caltrans District 10. His last assignment was Chief, Division of Transportation Planning where he served from 1983 until his retirement in April 1990.

Topics covered include Division of Highways research programs, layoffs, California State Transportation Plan, and last link of Interstate 5 completed.

Withycombe, Earl
Interviewed by Francis Hveem.

Earl Withycombe’s career with the Division of Highway–Operations for the last six years of his tenure. That position involved responsibility for construction and maintenance work on the 14,000-mile State Highway System. Withycombe was a specialist in paving operations and pioneered or assisted in development of new equipment and methods for highway construction.

Topics covered include work on grapevine, origin of the bull-float, and development of the "rough-ometer" for measuring pavement smoothness.